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cyberlaw:content [2015/09/26 11:22]
58.96.32.145 [Content classification in Australia]
cyberlaw:content [2019/09/16 12:34] (current)
131.181.11.107
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-# Content ​regulation ​and online classification+# Content ​Regulation ​and Online Classification
  
-<WRAP box round 460px right> +**Video Overview ​of Online Content Regulation ​in Australia ​by [Nicolas Suzor](https://​www.youtube.com/watch?​v=MXx8E2jnyGg)**
-**Nicolas Suzor gives an overview ​of online content regulation ​in Australia** +
-{{youtube>​MXx8E2jnyGg}} +
-</WRAP>+
  
-Australia has a co-regulatory content regulation scheme. Telecommunications providers work together to develop industry codes of practice. These industry codes are overseen by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) under the Broadcasting ​Services Act 1992 (Cth) Schedules 5 and 7. Schedule 5 applies to material hosted outside of Australia, and Schedule 7 applies to material hosted inside Australia. The Communications Alliance is the industry body that represents ISPs and Content Hosts. ​+Australia has a co-regulatory content regulation scheme. Telecommunications providers work together to develop industry codes of practice. These industry codes are overseen by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) under the _Broadcasting ​Services Act 1992_ (Cth) Schedules 5 and 7. Schedule 5 applies to material hosted outside of Australia, and Schedule 7 applies to material hosted inside Australia. Australia also has an Office of the eSafety Commissioner,​ who has powers to investigate and address complaints about internet content. The Communications Alliance is the industry body that represents ISPs and Content Hosts. ​
  
 * [Code for Industry Co-Regulation in Areas of Mobile and Internet Content](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​~/​media/​Content%20Classification/​Regulation/​pdf/​Internet%20Industry%20Codes%20of%20Practice%202005.PDF) (2005) * [Code for Industry Co-Regulation in Areas of Mobile and Internet Content](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​~/​media/​Content%20Classification/​Regulation/​pdf/​Internet%20Industry%20Codes%20of%20Practice%202005.PDF) (2005)
  
 * [Content Services Code of Practice](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​webwr/​aba/​contentreg/​codes/​internet/​documents/​content_services_code_2008.pdf) (2008) * [Content Services Code of Practice](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​webwr/​aba/​contentreg/​codes/​internet/​documents/​content_services_code_2008.pdf) (2008)
- 
- 
-<WRAP help round third> 
-**Student video topic: Explain the co-regulatory system that applies to Australian telecommunications providers. How are codes negotiated, registered, and how can they be changed or over-ruled by the Government?​** 
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
 ## Content classification in Australia ## Content classification in Australia
  
 +**Video Overview of Australia'​s classification Ratings by[Emily Rees](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=GAZ3Bev5lb0)**
  
 The National Classification Code provides a statement of purpose that classification decisions are to give effect, as far as possible, to the following principles: The National Classification Code provides a statement of purpose that classification decisions are to give effect, as far as possible, to the following principles:
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 * Games: G, PG, M, MA15+, R18+ * Games: G, PG, M, MA15+, R18+
  
-<WRAP box round 450px> 
-**Emily Rees explains Australia'​s classification ratings** 
-{{youtube>​GAZ3Bev5lb0}} 
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
-<WRAP box round> 
 === Classification Guidelines: R18+ === === Classification Guidelines: R18+ ===
  
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   * Material promoting or encouraging proscribed drug use.   * Material promoting or encouraging proscribed drug use.
  
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
-## Online classification 
  
-<WRAP box round>+## Online Classification 
 + 
 {{:​cyberlaw:​content-flowchart-murdoch.png}} {{:​cyberlaw:​content-flowchart-murdoch.png}}
-**Diagram by Sophie ​Murdoch** +**Diagram by Sophie ​Murdock**
-</​WRAP>​+
  
-The online classification scheme is a complaints-based scheme. When ACMA receives a complaint, it applies the Guidelines to come to a preliminary view as to whether content is '​potential prohibited content'​. If the content has not yet been classified, ACMA will obtain classification from the Classification Board. 
  
-## Content hosted in Australia (Sch 7) +The online classification scheme is a complaints-based scheme. When ACMA receives a complaint, it applies the Guidelines to come to a preliminary view as to whether content is '​potential prohibited content'​. If the content has not yet been classified, ACMA will obtain classification from the Classification Board.
  
-<WRAP box round 280px right> +## Content Hosted in Australia (Sch 7
-**Hannah Burnett explains how the complaints system under Sch 7** +
- ​{{youtube>​fgll39yYmD0?​small}}+
  
-</WRAP>+**Video Overview of the complaints system under Sch 7 by [Hannah Burnett](https:​//​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=fgll39yYmD0)**
  
-Under Schedule 7, members of the public can make complaints about prohibited or potentially prohibited content ((cl 37)), which ACMA must investigate((cl 43)). Content that is prohibited in Australia is defined as material that is or would be:((cl 20))+Under Schedule 7, members of the public can make complaints about prohibited or potentially prohibited content ((cl 37)), which the Commissioner ​must investigate. Content that is prohibited in Australia is defined as material that is or would be:((cl 20))
  
-* Refused Classification (content that exceeds the limits of all other catgories. RC content is not necessarily unlawful to possess or access, but it is unlawful to broadcast, sell, or screen publicly) ​+* Refused Classification (content that exceeds the limits of all other categories. RC content is not necessarily unlawful to possess or access, but it is unlawful to broadcast, sell, or screen publicly) ​
 * X rated (films that depict sexually explicit content); * X rated (films that depict sexually explicit content);
 * Rated R18+ (Films or computer games with high impact violence, sex scenes, and drug use that are high in impact) without a Restricted Access System; or * Rated R18+ (Films or computer games with high impact violence, sex scenes, and drug use that are high in impact) without a Restricted Access System; or
 * Audiovisual content that is Rated MA15+ ('​strong content'​ that is legally restricted to persons 15 years and over), provided over a commercial service, and not subject to a restricted access system. * Audiovisual content that is Rated MA15+ ('​strong content'​ that is legally restricted to persons 15 years and over), provided over a commercial service, and not subject to a restricted access system.
  
-If prohibited content is available from servers with an ‘Australian connection’, ​ACMA must order the service provider to remove or stop serving the content. This is done in different ways for different types of content:+If prohibited content is available from servers with an ‘Australian connection’, ​the Commissioner ​must order the service provider to remove or stop serving the content. This is done in different ways for different types of content:
  
-* For hosted content, ​ACMA must serve the hosting service a ‘final take down notice’.((cl 47))  +* For hosted content, ​the Commissioner ​must serve the hosting service a ‘final take down notice’.((cl 47))  
-* For live-streaming content, ​ACMA must give the provider a ‘final service-cessation notice’.((cl 56)) +* For live-streaming content, ​the Commissioner ​must give the provider a ‘final service-cessation notice’.((cl 56)) 
-* Where prohibited content is linked to by an Australian indexing service (or search engine), ​ACMA must give the provider a ‘final link-deletion notice’.((cl 62))+* Where prohibited content is linked to by an Australian indexing service (or search engine), ​the Commissioner ​must give the provider a ‘final link-deletion notice’.((cl 62))
  
-To determine the applicable rating, internet content is evaluated as if it were a ‘film’((cl 25)) under the Classification Guidelines. If content is ‘potentially prohibited’, ​ACMA must issue an interim notice and apply to the Classification Board for classification. ​+To determine the applicable rating, internet content is evaluated as if it were a ‘film’((cl 25)) under the Classification Guidelines. If content is ‘potentially prohibited’, ​the Commissioner ​must issue an interim notice and apply to the Classification Board for classification. ​
  
 ### '​Restricted Access System'​ ### '​Restricted Access System'​
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 (Who is the  service ​ provider?) (Who is the  service ​ provider?)
  
-## Internationally ​hosted content ​ (Sch 5)+## Internationally ​Hosted Content ​ (Sch 5)
  
-<WRAP help round third> +**Video Overview of the Operation ​of Sch 5 for Internationally Hosted Content by [Anon](https://​www.youtube.com/watch?​v=XmFfWrAWzP8)**
-**Student video topic:** Explain ​the operation ​of Sch 5 for internationally hosted content. +
-</WRAP>+
  
-Legislation ​ provides for  blocking of  content if there is  no industry code in  force +Legislation ​ provides for  blocking of  content if there is  no industry code in  force. However, there is a current ​industry code, and it does not require blocking. Under the code, URLs of prohibited content are given to  voluntary filter vendors, but no further action is taken in regards to overseas hosted content. ​
-Current ​industry code does not require blocking +
-URLs given to  voluntary filter vendors +
-No further action is taken in regards to overseas hosted content. +
-ACMA can review ​ and replace code in  certain ​ circumstances+
  
 ## Section 313 Blocking ## Section 313 Blocking
  
-<WRAP help round third> +**Gab Red Explains [How s 313 Is Used by Government ​Agencies ​to Block Websites](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=tdfHpMizgkM)**  
-**Student video topic: Explain how s 313 is used by Government ​agencies ​to block websites** + 
-</WRAP>+**Matt Cartwright [Explains](https:​//​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=CDxI6-ePEgk) the Recommendations of the Recent [Inquiry Into the Use of s 313](http://​www.aph.gov.au/​Parliamentary_Business/​Committees/​House/​Infrastructure_and_Communications/​Inquiry_into_the_use_of_section_313_of_the_Telecommunications_Act_to_disrupt_the_operation_of_illegal_online_services)**  
 + 
 +## The Office of the e-Safety Commissioner 
 + 
 +**Lauren Trickey explains [how to make a complaint to the eSafety Commissioner](https://​youtu.be/​2aTxXyZsYgw)**  
 + 
 +The [eSafety Commissioner](https://​www.esafety.gov.au/​) is a statutory office established by the Enhancing Online Safety Act 2015 (Cth) to promote and enhance online safety. The Commissioner can receive reports for cyber-bulling,​ image-based abuse or offensive and illegal content.  
 + 
 +Cyberbullying complaints can be made by an Australian child or parent, guardian or person authorised by the child. Cyberbullying refers to online material intended to seriously threaten, intimidate, harass or humiliate an Australian child. 
 + 
 +Image based-abuse complaints can be made by the person in the intimate image, a person authorised to make a report or a parent or guardian of a child or a person who does not have capacity. The Commissioner can only assist if the image is hosted in Australia or if the person in the image or the person who posted the image resides in Australia. Image based-abuse occurs where a person has shared or threatened to share an intimate image of another person, without their consent. 
 + 
 +Australian residents can also report offensive or illegal content, which includes abhorrent violent material or material depicting illegal acts.
  
-<WRAP help round third> +For each type of material an online form can be completed on the eSafety website. Each form requests information regarding what is contained or depicted in the material and where the material has been postedAfter receiving a complaint, the Commissioner assesses the material complained of to determine the appropriate course of action, which may include liaising with the relevant platform for the material to be removed.
-**Student video topic: Explain the recommendations ​of the recent [Inquiry into the use of s 313](http://​www.aph.gov.au/​Parliamentary_Business/​Committees/​House/​Infrastructure_and_Communications/​Inquiry_into_the_use_of_section_313_of_the_Telecommunications_Act_to_disrupt_the_operation_of_illegal_online_services)** +
-</​WRAP>​+
  
 ## Mandatory ISP filtering ## Mandatory ISP filtering
  
-<WRAP help round third> 
-**Student video topic:** Explain the previous Labor Government'​s proposal to require ISPs to block websites containing offensive content 
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
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