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cyberlaw:content [2015/09/26 11:44]
58.96.32.145 [Internationally hosted content (Sch 5)]
cyberlaw:content [2019/10/30 16:36] (current)
nic
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-# Content ​regulation ​and online classification+# Content ​Regulation ​and Online Classification
  
-<WRAP box round 460px right> +**Video Overview ​of Online Content Regulation ​in Australia ​by [Nicolas Suzor](https://​www.youtube.com/watch?​v=MXx8E2jnyGg)**
-**Nicolas Suzor gives an overview ​of online content regulation ​in Australia** +
-{{youtube>​MXx8E2jnyGg}} +
-</WRAP>+
  
-Australia has a co-regulatory content regulation scheme. Telecommunications providers work together to develop industry codes of practice. These industry codes are overseen by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) under the Broadcasting ​Services Act 1992 (Cth) Schedules 5 and 7. Schedule 5 applies to material hosted outside of Australia, and Schedule 7 applies to material hosted inside Australia. The Communications Alliance is the industry body that represents ISPs and Content Hosts. ​+Australia has a co-regulatory content regulation scheme. Telecommunications providers work together to develop industry codes of practice. These industry codes are overseen by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) under the _Broadcasting ​Services Act 1992_ (Cth) Schedules 5 and 7. Schedule 5 applies to material hosted outside of Australia, and Schedule 7 applies to material hosted inside Australia. Australia also has an Office of the eSafety Commissioner,​ who has powers to investigate and address complaints about internet content. The Communications Alliance is the industry body that represents ISPs and Content Hosts. ​
  
 * [Code for Industry Co-Regulation in Areas of Mobile and Internet Content](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​~/​media/​Content%20Classification/​Regulation/​pdf/​Internet%20Industry%20Codes%20of%20Practice%202005.PDF) (2005) * [Code for Industry Co-Regulation in Areas of Mobile and Internet Content](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​~/​media/​Content%20Classification/​Regulation/​pdf/​Internet%20Industry%20Codes%20of%20Practice%202005.PDF) (2005)
  
 * [Content Services Code of Practice](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​webwr/​aba/​contentreg/​codes/​internet/​documents/​content_services_code_2008.pdf) (2008) * [Content Services Code of Practice](http://​www.acma.gov.au/​webwr/​aba/​contentreg/​codes/​internet/​documents/​content_services_code_2008.pdf) (2008)
- 
- 
-<WRAP help round third> 
-**Student video topic: Explain the co-regulatory system that applies to Australian telecommunications providers. How are codes negotiated, registered, and how can they be changed or over-ruled by the Government?​** 
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
 ## Content classification in Australia ## Content classification in Australia
  
 +**Video Overview of Australia'​s classification Ratings by[Emily Rees](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=GAZ3Bev5lb0)**
  
 The National Classification Code provides a statement of purpose that classification decisions are to give effect, as far as possible, to the following principles: The National Classification Code provides a statement of purpose that classification decisions are to give effect, as far as possible, to the following principles:
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 * Games: G, PG, M, MA15+, R18+ * Games: G, PG, M, MA15+, R18+
  
-<WRAP box round 450px> 
-**Emily Rees explains Australia'​s classification ratings** 
-{{youtube>​GAZ3Bev5lb0}} 
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
-<WRAP box round> 
 === Classification Guidelines: R18+ === === Classification Guidelines: R18+ ===
  
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   * Material promoting or encouraging proscribed drug use.   * Material promoting or encouraging proscribed drug use.
  
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
-## Online classification 
  
-<WRAP box round>+## Online Classification 
 + 
 {{:​cyberlaw:​content-flowchart-murdoch.png}} {{:​cyberlaw:​content-flowchart-murdoch.png}}
-**Diagram by Sophie ​Murdoch** +**Diagram by Sophie ​Murdock**
-</​WRAP>​+
  
-The online classification scheme is a complaints-based scheme. When ACMA receives a complaint, it applies the Guidelines to come to a preliminary view as to whether content is '​potential prohibited content'​. If the content has not yet been classified, ACMA will obtain classification from the Classification Board. 
  
-## Content hosted in Australia (Sch 7) +The online classification scheme is a complaints-based scheme. When ACMA receives a complaint, it applies the Guidelines to come to a preliminary view as to whether content is '​potential prohibited content'​. If the content has not yet been classified, ACMA will obtain classification from the Classification Board.
  
-<WRAP box round 280px right> +## Content Hosted in Australia (Sch 7
-**Hannah Burnett explains how the complaints system under Sch 7** +
- ​{{youtube>​fgll39yYmD0?​small}}+
  
-</WRAP>+**Video Overview of the complaints system under Sch 7 by [Hannah Burnett](https:​//​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=fgll39yYmD0)**
  
-Under Schedule 7, members of the public can make complaints about prohibited or potentially prohibited content ((cl 37)), which ACMA must investigate((cl 43)). Content that is prohibited in Australia is defined as material that is or would be:((cl 20))+Under Schedule 7, members of the public can make complaints about prohibited or potentially prohibited content ((cl 37)), which the Commissioner ​must investigate. Content that is prohibited in Australia is defined as material that is or would be:((cl 20))
  
-* Refused Classification (content that exceeds the limits of all other catgories. RC content is not necessarily unlawful to possess or access, but it is unlawful to broadcast, sell, or screen publicly) ​+* Refused Classification (content that exceeds the limits of all other categories. RC content is not necessarily unlawful to possess or access, but it is unlawful to broadcast, sell, or screen publicly) ​
 * X rated (films that depict sexually explicit content); * X rated (films that depict sexually explicit content);
 * Rated R18+ (Films or computer games with high impact violence, sex scenes, and drug use that are high in impact) without a Restricted Access System; or * Rated R18+ (Films or computer games with high impact violence, sex scenes, and drug use that are high in impact) without a Restricted Access System; or
 * Audiovisual content that is Rated MA15+ ('​strong content'​ that is legally restricted to persons 15 years and over), provided over a commercial service, and not subject to a restricted access system. * Audiovisual content that is Rated MA15+ ('​strong content'​ that is legally restricted to persons 15 years and over), provided over a commercial service, and not subject to a restricted access system.
  
-If prohibited content is available from servers with an ‘Australian connection’, ​ACMA must order the service provider to remove or stop serving the content. This is done in different ways for different types of content:+If prohibited content is available from servers with an ‘Australian connection’, ​the Commissioner ​must order the service provider to remove or stop serving the content. This is done in different ways for different types of content:
  
-* For hosted content, ​ACMA must serve the hosting service a ‘final take down notice’.((cl 47))  +* For hosted content, ​the Commissioner ​must serve the hosting service a ‘final take down notice’.((cl 47))  
-* For live-streaming content, ​ACMA must give the provider a ‘final service-cessation notice’.((cl 56)) +* For live-streaming content, ​the Commissioner ​must give the provider a ‘final service-cessation notice’.((cl 56)) 
-* Where prohibited content is linked to by an Australian indexing service (or search engine), ​ACMA must give the provider a ‘final link-deletion notice’.((cl 62))+* Where prohibited content is linked to by an Australian indexing service (or search engine), ​the Commissioner ​must give the provider a ‘final link-deletion notice’.((cl 62))
  
-To determine the applicable rating, internet content is evaluated as if it were a ‘film’((cl 25)) under the Classification Guidelines. If content is ‘potentially prohibited’, ​ACMA must issue an interim notice and apply to the Classification Board for classification. ​+To determine the applicable rating, internet content is evaluated as if it were a ‘film’((cl 25)) under the Classification Guidelines. If content is ‘potentially prohibited’, ​the Commissioner ​must issue an interim notice and apply to the Classification Board for classification. ​
  
 ### '​Restricted Access System'​ ### '​Restricted Access System'​
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 (Who is the  service ​ provider?) (Who is the  service ​ provider?)
  
-## Internationally hosted content ​ (Sch 5)+### The ACMA may replace an industry code of practice with new standards
  
-<WRAP box round 450px> +**See [explanation by Nicholas Cooper](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=F-dqj6B8qUU)** 
-**Anon explains ​the operation ​of Sch 5 for internationally hosted content.** + 
-{{youtube>​XmFfWrAWzP8}} +Where relevant industry codes have failed or are not adopted, the ACMA may replace these codes with their own standards. The ACMA's ability to replace an industry code with a standard varies dependent on the legislation that governs that industry. 
-</WRAP>+ 
 +Generally, the ACMA must request that an association representing an industry develop a replacement of a code within 120 days. The ACMA must publish this request in the federal gazette if no association exists within an industry. If the developed code fails in some capacity or no association is formed, the ACMA may replace an industry code with a standard. In some industries, the appropriate Minister may direct the ACMA to establish a standard to replace a code. 
 + 
 +## Internationally Hosted Content ​ (Sch 5) 
 + 
 +**Video Overview of the Operation ​of Sch 5 for Internationally Hosted Content by [Anon](https://​www.youtube.com/watch?​v=XmFfWrAWzP8)**
  
 Legislation ​ provides for  blocking of  content if there is  no industry code in  force. However, there is a current industry code, and it does not require blocking. Under the code, URLs of prohibited content are given to  voluntary filter vendors, but no further action is taken in regards to overseas hosted content. ​ Legislation ​ provides for  blocking of  content if there is  no industry code in  force. However, there is a current industry code, and it does not require blocking. Under the code, URLs of prohibited content are given to  voluntary filter vendors, but no further action is taken in regards to overseas hosted content. ​
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 ## Section 313 Blocking ## Section 313 Blocking
  
-<WRAP box round 280px > +**Gab Red Explains [How s 313 Is Used by Government ​Agencies ​to Block Websites](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=tdfHpMizgkM)**  
-**Gab Red explains how s 313 is used by Government ​agencies ​to block websites** + 
- {{youtube>​tdfHpMizgkM?small}}+**Matt Cartwright [Explains](https://​www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDxI6-ePEgk) the Recommendations of the Recent [Inquiry Into the Use of s 313](http://​www.aph.gov.au/​Parliamentary_Business/​Committees/​House/​Infrastructure_and_Communications/​Inquiry_into_the_use_of_section_313_of_the_Telecommunications_Act_to_disrupt_the_operation_of_illegal_online_services)**  
 + 
 +## Image-based abuse 
 + 
 +**Video overview of [image-based abuse laws](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=IW17HxwdP-Q) by Danielle Harris** 
 + 
 +The non-consensual sharing of intimate images is often colloquially referred to as '​revenge porn'. The term '​image-based abuse' is generally considered to be a more accurate term that avoids the victim-blaming connotations of '​revenge porn'​. 
 + 
 +The National Statement of Principles Relating to the Criminalisation of the Non-consensual Sharing of Intimate Images encouraged each Australian jurisdiction to adopt nationally consistent criminal offences.  
 + 
 +The Commonwealth has inserted a new criminal offence which prohibits the posting, or threatening to post, non-consensual intimate images.((Enhancing Online Safety (Non-Consensual Sharing of Intimate Images) Act 2018 (Cth) sch 2 s 4; Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) s 474.17A.)) It also introduced a complaints-based system whereby the eSafety Commissioner may issue a removal notice or another civil remedy upon receipt of a victim’s complaint.((Enhancing Online Safety (Non-Consensual Sharing of Intimate Images) Act 2018 (Cth) sch 1 s 24; Enhancing Online Safety Act 2015 (Cth) ss 19A, 27, 44D–44F.)) 
 + 
 +Queensland extended the definition of ‘intimate’ images to include original or photoshopped still or moving images of a person engaged in intimate sexual activity; a person'​s bare genital or anal region; or a female, transgender or intersex person'​s breasts.((Criminal Code (Non-Consensual Sharing of Intimate Images) Amendment Bill 2018 (Qld) s 4; Criminal Code Act 1899 (Qld) s 207A.))  
 + 
 +The State also introduced three new misdemeanours into their Criminal Code[6] to broaden the scope of conduct which is captured under the offence. These include distributing intimate images,​((Criminal Code (Non-Consensual Sharing of Intimate Images) Amendment Bill 2018 (Qld) s 5; Criminal Code Act 1899 (Qld) s 223.)) observing or recording breaches of privacy,​((Criminal Code (Non-Consensual Sharing of Intimate Images) Amendment Bill 2018 (Qld) s 6; Criminal Code Act 1899 (Qld) s 227A.)) and distributing prohibited visual recordings.((Criminal Code (Non-Consensual Sharing of Intimate Images) Amendment Bill 2018 (Qld) s 7; Criminal Code Act 1899 (Qld) s 227B.)) 
 + 
 +## The Office of the e-Safety Commissioner 
 + 
 +**Lauren Trickey explains [how to make a complaint to the eSafety Commissioner](https://​youtu.be/​2aTxXyZsYgw)**  
 + 
 +The [eSafety Commissioner](https://​www.esafety.gov.au/​) is a statutory office established by the Enhancing Online Safety Act 2015 (Cth) to promote and enhance online safety. The Commissioner can receive reports for cyber-bulling,​ image-based abuse or offensive and illegal content.  
 + 
 +Cyberbullying complaints can be made by an Australian child or parent, guardian or person authorised by the child. Cyberbullying refers to online material intended to seriously threaten, intimidate, harass or humiliate an Australian child. 
 + 
 +Image based-abuse complaints can be made by the person in the intimate image, a person authorised to make a report or a parent or guardian of a child or a person who does not have capacity. The Commissioner can only assist if the image is hosted in Australia or if the person in the image or the person who posted the image resides in Australia. Image based-abuse occurs where a person has shared or threatened to share an intimate image of another person, without their consent. 
 + 
 +Australian residents can also report offensive or illegal content, which includes abhorrent violent material or material depicting illegal acts. 
 + 
 +For each type of material an online form can be completed on the eSafety website. Each form requests information regarding what is contained or depicted in the material and where the material has been posted. After receiving a complaint, the Commissioner assesses the material complained of to determine the appropriate course of action, which may include liaising with the relevant platform for the material to be removed. 
 + 
 +## Abhorrent Violent Material 
 + 
 +**See overview by Georgie Vine about the [Criminal Code Amendment (Sharing of Abhorrent Violent Material) Act 2019](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=a8qDarI5mCM)** 
 + 
 +The _[Criminal Code Amendment (Sharing of Abhorrent Violent Material) Act 2019](https://​www.legislation.gov.au/​Details/​C2019A00038)_ creates new offences under the Criminal Code, effective from 6 April 2019. These new provisions require social media websites and other platforms to remove abhorrent violent material as soon as reasonably possible, and to refer it to the Australian Federal Police. These offences target content that is reasonably capable of being accessed with Australia, regardless of where the platform operator is located. The offences include substantial penalties if individuals and companies do not remove or report such classified material: fines up to 10% of annual global turnover for companies, and up to 3 years imprisonment for individuals.  
 + 
 +There are a few defences to the new offences, including material distributed by journalists;​ material used for scientific, medical, academic or historical research; and the exhibition of artistic works. 
 + 
 +## Other emerging issues 
 + 
 +### Deepfakes 
 +   
 +**See [an explanation of deepfakes](https://​youtu.be/​cLHdOJr7v5w) by Eric Briese** 
 + 
 +A deepfake is a technique of video manipulation where artificial intelligence and deep learning is leveraged to modify the appearance of a person in a video to appear as someone else. While fake and edited videos are nothing new, this recent phenomenon has caused concern due to the ease and accessibility of their creation. 
 + 
 +The concerns surrounding deep fakes stem from their ability to be used for all sorts of bad reason such as false evidence, blackmail, or for personal attacks. The potential harm that deepfakes can cause is also magnified due to the widespread use of the internet in our increasingly online interconnected world. 
 + 
 +Deepfakes aren't explicitly illegal but depending on how they are used they may be captured under other laws. For instance, creating and spreading deepfake pornography is illegal under section 223 of the criminal code in Queensland.
  
-</​WRAP>​+Regulating deepfakes is a difficult challenge. One possibility to combat deepfakes is to create algorithms which leverage the same deep learning technology to automatically detect deepfakes, but this is not perfect. Companies are working towards finding viable solutions like by releasing collections of deepfakes to help researches and experts study this new phenomenon.
  
-<WRAP box round 280px> 
-**Matt Cartwright explains the recommendations of the recent [Inquiry into the use of s 313](http://​www.aph.gov.au/​Parliamentary_Business/​Committees/​House/​Infrastructure_and_Communications/​Inquiry_into_the_use_of_section_313_of_the_Telecommunications_Act_to_disrupt_the_operation_of_illegal_online_services)** 
- ​{{youtube>​CDxI6-ePEgk?​small}} 
-</​WRAP>​ 
  
-## Mandatory ISP filtering 
-<WRAP box round 280px> 
-**Daniel 920622 explains the the previous Labor Government'​s proposal to require ISPs to block websites containing offensive content** 
-{{youtube>​PPTMv0xLfc4?​small}} 
-</​WRAP>​ 
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